Almost all procedures in interior design are based on proportions and measurements – aka spatial relationships. Putting the relationships into perspective requires a plan and these plans are traditionally produced to communicate visually.
The design process may begin with freehand concept sketching to enable the designer to relay onto paper what he envisions and see what needs to be added or modified.
Presentation plans are the initial schematics showing the overall concepts: site placement, the exterior and interior architecture, the mechanical plan the electrical plan, plumbing plan and fire protection plan (which today often includes a sprinkler system). The color schemes and how they are transitioned with fabrics, paints and textures. How the spaces relate to each other sometimes with the ideas of traffic flow, and what furniture and fixtures could be included are part of the floor plan, the major part of the presentation. They include architectural notations for placement of electrical, doors, and major components.
These are drawn with greater detail to allow clients to clearly see what the designer has in mind. The views drawn are also done so the client would view them as a picture – horizontally in an elevation view:
and in one or more of the perspective views: One point perspective
Two point perspective
From there, construction drawings are put together. The details here vary greatly from the details the client is presented. The drawings are scaled with exact measurements based on the ratios of an architects scale.
Methods of how the building, cabinetry, furniture or whatever is to be built are shown in a visual detail. Construction drawings also known as working drawings or blueprints, will show the materials to be used with a key symbol and an accompanying legend for each material.
The building is viewed as multiple cross-sections – a cutaway view of the building viewed vertically from roof to foundation. Detail sheets are included for each section of a building’s construction: Foundation, Roof, Framing, Gutter system, Windows, Doors, built-in cabinetry etc. The specific section will have its own detail sheets that zoom in to the pertinent parts and illustrate how they are constructed. The sections sheets will be numbered in a sequence to illustrate the flow of the project and the details to be constructed within each section.
The sections are labeled also to reflect back to the floor plan to show where the cutaway view comes from. The floor plan will have an arrow and letter that matches the section drawing.
Only with great accuracy and attention to detail can a building be constructed according to plan. Each stage will have to be examined by a city or county inspector who will make sure all is being built to code before building for the next stage can resume.
Drawing is obviously an essential part of interior design. Thankfully although the knowledge has to be part of the curriculum, there are now computer programs and out sourced services you can hire to do whatever is required. While a designer may be responsible for a version of the floor plan – especially space planning, most of the work falls to the architect and the construction company. What is required is the knowledge or how it all flows together, how to read a blueprint, whether the building is to code and how to pick up on discrepancies or mistakes in the drawings.